Universal Guidelines for AI





 

The Universal Guidelines for AI After 5 Years (2018-2023)

 

Center for AI and Digital Policy

Washington, DC

October 5, 2023

 

Synopsis

 

In 2018, computer scientists, human rights experts, NGO advocates, and scientific societies issued the Universal Guidelines for AI, a framework for the regulation of Artificial Intelligence. The Universal Guidelines set out 12 principles to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of AI. Over the past five years, many of the principles in the UGAI have been adopted in national law and international AI policy frameworks. But new issues have emerged, such as sustainability and gender equity. In the fall of 2023, the EU will be finalizing the EU AI Act and the US will begin work on legislation for Artificial Intelligence.

 

This conference will explore the impact of the Universal Guidelines on the development of  AI policies - what was accomplished, which new issues emerged, and what more needs to be done. The outcome will be an assessment of the progress made, a review of implementation, and a reopening of opportunities for endorsement on the occasion of the fifth anniversary of the Universal Guidelines for AI.

 



In Memory of Giovanni Buttarelli

The Universal Guidelines for AI were released at the Global Privacy Assembly Conference (formerly ICDPPC), held at the European Parliament in October 2018, with the support and endorsement of Giovanni Buttarelli. Giovanni was the European Data Protection Supervisor, a friend and mentor to many in the privacy world, and a true champion of freedom. He devoted his life's work to the defense of fundamental rights in the digital age. 


Explanatory Memorandum and References

Explanatory Memorandum and References

October 2018

 

Context

 

The Universal Guidelines on Artificial Intelligence (UGAI) call attention to the growing challenges of intelligent computational systems and proposes concrete recommendations that can improve and inform their design. At its core, the purpose of the UGAI is to promote transparency and accountability for these systems and to ensure that people retain control over the systems they create. Not all systems fall within the scope of these Guidelines. Our concern is with those systems that impact the rights of people. Above all else, these systems should do no harm.

 

The declaration is timely. Governments around the word are developing policy proposals and institutions, both public and private, are supporting research and development of “AI.” Invariably, there will be an enormous impact on the public, regardless of their participation in the design and development of these systems. And so, the UGAI reflects a public perspective on these challenges.

 

The UGAI were announced at the 2018 International Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners Conference, among the most significant meetings of technology leaders and data protection experts in history.

 

The UGAI builds on prior work by scientific societies, think tanks, NGOs, and international organizations. The UGAI incorporates elements of human rights doctrine, data protection law, and ethical guidelines. The Guidelines include several well-established principles for AI governance, and put forward new principles not previously found in similar policy frameworks.

 

Terminology

 

The term “Artificial Intelligence” is both broad and imprecise. It includes aspects of machine learning, rule-based decision-making, and other computational techniques. There are also disputes regarding whether Artificial Intelligence is possible. The UGAI simply acknowledges that this term, in common use, covers a wide range of related issues and adopts the term to engage the current debate. There is no attempt here to define its boundaries, other than to assume that AI requires some degree of automated decision-making. The term “Guidelines” follows the practice of policy frameworks that speak primarily to governments and private companies.

 

The UGAI speaks to the obligations of “institutions” and the rights of “individuals.” This follows from the articulation of fair information practices in the data protection field. The UGAI takes the protection of the individual as a fundamental goal.

 

Institutions, public and private, are understood to be those entities that develop and deploy AI systems. The term “institution” was chosen rather than the more familiar “organization” to underscore the permanent, ongoing nature of the obligations set out in the Guidelines. There is one principle that is addressed to “national governments.” The reason for this is discussed below.

 

Application

 

These Guidelines should be incorporated into ethical standards, adopted in national law and international agreements, and built into the design of systems.

The Principles

 

The elements of the Transparency Principle can be found in several modern privacy laws, including the US Privacy Act, the EU Data Protection Directive, the GDPR, and the Council of Europe Convention 108. The aim of this principle is to enable independent accountability for automated decisions, with a primary emphasis on the right of the individual to know the basis of an adverse determination. In practical terms, it may not be possible for an individual to interpret the basis of a particular decision, but this does not obviate the need to ensure that such an explanation is possible.

 

The Right to a Human Determination reaffirms that individuals and not machines are responsible for automated decision-making. In many instances, such as the operation of an autonomous vehicle, it would not be possible or practical to insert a human decision prior to an automated decision. But the aim remains to ensure accountability. Thus where an automated system fails, this principle should be understood as a requirement that a human assessment of the outcome be made.

 

Identification Obligation. This principle seeks to address the identification asymmetry that arises in the interaction between individuals and AI systems. An AI system typically knows a great deal about an individual; the individual may not even know the operator of the AI system.  The Identification Obligation establishes the foundation of AI accountability which is to make clear the identity of an AI system and the institution responsible.

 

The Fairness Obligation recognizes that all automated systems make decisions that reflect bias and discrimination, but such decisions should not be normatively unfair. There is no simple answer to the question as to what is unfair or impermissible. The evaluation often depends on context. But the Fairness Obligation makes clear that an assessment of objective outcomes alone is not sufficient to evaluate an AI system. Normative consequences must be assessed, including those that preexist or may be amplified by an AI system.

 

The Assessment and Accountability Obligation speaks to the obligation to assess an AI system prior to and during deployment. Regarding assessment, it should be understood that a central purpose of this obligation is to determine whether an AI system should be established. If an assessment reveals substantial risks, such as those suggested by principles concerning Public Safety and Cybersecurity, then the project should not move forward.

 

The Accuracy, Reliability, and Validity Obligations set out key responsibilities associated with the outcome of automated decisions. The terms are intended to be interpreted both independently and jointly.

 

The Data Quality Principle follows from the preceding obligation.

 

The Public Safety Obligation recognizes that AI systems control devices in the physical world. For this reason, institutions must both assess risks and take precautionary measures as appropriate.

 

The Cybersecurity Obligation follows from the Public Safety Obligation and underscores the risk that even well-designed systems may be the target of hostile actors. Those who develop and deploy AI systems must take these risks into account.

 

The Prohibition on Secret Profiling follows from the earlier Identification Obligation. The aim is to avoid the information asymmetry that arises increasingly with AI systems and to ensure the possibility of independent accountability.

 

The Prohibition on Unitary Scoring speaks directly to the risk of a single, multi-purpose number assigned by a government to an individual. In data protection law, universal identifiers that enable the profiling of individuals across are disfavored. These identifiers are often regulated and in some instances prohibited. The concern with universal scoring, described here as “unitary scoring,” is even greater.

 

A unitary score reflects not only a unitary profile but also a predetermined outcome across multiple domains of human activity. There is some risk that unitary scores will also emerge in the private sector. Conceivably, such systems could be subject to market competition and government regulations. But there is not even the possibility of counterbalance with unitary scores assigned by government, and therefore they should be prohibited.

 

The Termination Obligation is the ultimate statement of accountability for an AI system. The obligation presumes that systems must remain within human control. If that is no longer possible, the system should be terminated.

 

REFERENCES

  • Asilomar AI Principles (2017)
  • Aspen Institute Roundtable on Artificial Intelligence (2016)
  • Association for Computing Machinery, U.S. Public Policy Counsel, Statement on Algorithmic Transparency and Accountability (Jan. 2017)
  • Council of Europe, Convention 108 (1981)
  • Council of Europe and Artificial Intelligence (2018)
  • Data and Society, Governing Artificial Intelligence (2018)
  • European Commission, High Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence (2018)
  • EU General Data Protection Regulation (2018)
  • IEEE, Ethically Aligned Design (2016)
  • Japan, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, AI R&D Guidelines (2016)
  • Garry Kasparov, Deep Thinking: Where Machine Intelligence Ends and Human Creativity Begins (2017)
  • Madrid Privacy Declaration (2009)
  • OECD, Artificial Intelligence (2018)
  • OECD, Privacy Guidelines (1980)
  • Cathy O’Neil, Weapons of Math Destruction (2016)
  • Frank Pasquale, The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information (2015)
  • Privacy International, Artificial Intelligence (2018)
  • US Privacy Act (1974)
  • Toronto Declaration (2018)
  • Joseph Weizenbaum, Computer Power and Human Reason (1976)
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

Endorsements  - Organizations (2018)

  • adecco (United Kingdom)
  • AI World Society (United States)
  • AIethicist.org (United States)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (United States)
  • Artículo 12 (Mexico)
  • Artificial Intelligence International Institute (AIII) (Singapore)
  • Asociación por los Derechos Civiles (ADC) (Argentina)
  • Asociaión de Internautas (Spain)
  • BEUC, The European Consumer Organisation (Belgium)
  • Bm-support.org (Netherlands)
  • Boston Global Forum (United States)
  • Brandlists (Canada)
  • Business Management Support Foundation (Netherlands)
  • Campaign for Commercial-Free Childhood (United States)
  • Center for Digital Democracy (United States)
  • Center for Economic Justice (United States)
  • Colegio Profesional de Ingenieros Técnicos en Informática de Andalucía (Spain)
  • Columbia Consumer Education Council (United States)
  • Constitutional Alliance (United States)
  • Consumer Federation of America (United States)
  • Consumer Watchdog (United States)
  • CRITAC| Ghana technology University College (Ghana)
  • Cyber Privacy Project (United States)
  • DataEthics.eu (Denmark)
  • Defending Rights & Dissent (United States)
  • Derechos Digitales (Chile)
  • EKPIZO (Consumer Association the Quality of Life) (Greece)
  • EMLS RI (Evolution of Mind Life Society Research Institute) (United Kingdom)
  • EPIC (United States)
  • Ethique & Intégrité (France)
  • European Academy for Freedom of Information and Data Protection (Germany)
  • Ezixy (Canada)
  • Federation of American Scientists (United States)
  • Forbrukerrådet (Norwegian Consumer Council) (Norway)
  • Foundation for Responsible Robotics (Netherlands)
  • FullAI (Netherlands)
  • Fundación Ciudadano Inteligente (Chile)
  • Fundación Vía Libre (Argentina)
  • Government Accountability Project (United States)
  • Homo Digitalis (Greece)
  • Ikran Services srl (Italy)
  • IPANDETEC (Panama)
  • ISTITUTO ITALIANO PER LA PRIVACY E LA VALORIZZAZIONE DEI DATI (Italy)
  • Istituto per le politiche dell’innovazione (Italy)
  • Ivalua (France)
  • JCA-NET (Japan)
  • Kanteron Systems (Spain)
  • Kenya ICT Action Network (KICTANet) (Kenya)
  • KEPKA - Consumers Protection Center (Greece)
  • Legal Robot, Inc. (United States)
  • LICA (France)
  • Ligthhouse2.2 (United States)
  • LSEC - Leaders In Security (Belgium)
  • Michelle M Hovington Llc (Canada)
  • NEXT Institute for Technology & Law (Netherlands)
  • Nn3rBi4GwJMRk (Fiji)
  • Open Market Institute (United States)
  • Panoptykon Foundation (Poland)
  • Patient Privacy Rights (United States)
  • Privacy International (United Kingdom)
  • Privacy Rights Clearinghouse (United States)
  • Privacy Salon (Belgium)
  • Privacyvitas (Argentina)
  • Probable Models (United States)
  • Public Citizen (United States)
  • Secretaria de Educación Publica (Mexico)
  • Southern Poverty Law Center (United States)
  • Systems's R PC's Inc. (Mexico)
  • The Public Sphere Project (United States)
  • The Swedish Consumers' Association (Sweden)
  • Tools of Directing Ltd (United Kingdom)
  • tsokebwank (Nepal)
  • Universidad Técnica Estatal de Quevedo (Ecuador)
  • Valohai Oy (Finland)
  • Wevolve (Finland)
  • World Privacy Forum (United States)


Messages (2023)


UGAI Endorsement - Individuals (2023)

  • Minna Adlan, Fidutam (United Arab Emirates)
  • Cigdem Akin, CAIDP (Türkiye)
  • Arif Ahmed, Department of Law, Notre Dame University (Bangladesh)
  • Ashkan Alinaghian, University of Turin (Italy)
  • Tomiris Amirova (Kazakhstan)
  • Chritine Axsmith, Axsmith Law LLC (United States)
  • lateef ayinde, Florida State University (United States)
  • Evelina Ayrapetyan, Center for AI and Digital Policy (United States)
  • Okezue Alexander Bell, Fidutam (United States)
  • William Bello, Bello Consulting (Croatia)
  • Charitarth Bharti, Ernst and Young LLP (Canada)
  • Adam Billen, Fidutam, Encode Justice, FGS Global (United States)
  • Michael Borrelli, AI & Partners (United Kingdom)
  • Neriman Bozca (Türkiye)
  • Dr. Dirk Brand, Independent legal consultant (South Africa)
  • Helena Broj, University of Muenster (Germany)
  • Grant Chate, Grow Desk Consulting Ltd (Kenya)
  • Cynthia Chepkemoi, Kenya Women Microfinance Bank PLC (Kenya)
  • Bridget Chimbga, CAIDP (South Africa)
  • Darren Chng, CAIDP (Singapore)
  • Md Nazrul Islam Chowdhury FCS, ICSB (Bangladesh)
  • Lyantoniette Chua, Center for AI and Digital Policy (Philippines)
  • Meltem Ineli Ciger, Suleyman Demirel University (Turkiye)
  • Christian Cirhigiri, Search for Common Ground (Belgium)
  • Alfredo Collosa, AFIP (Argentina)
  • Kevin Creery, Resort Municipality of Whistler (Canada)
  • Vinod Das, Bayer (United States)
  • Sharvari Dhote, Data Scientist (Canada)
  • Mike Dumakude Ngoma, CAIDP Research Group (Malawi)
  • Divya Dwivedi, Supreme Court of India (India)
  • Axel Ebermann, CAIDP (United States)
  • Cornelia Evers, London School of Economics (United Kingdom)
  • Sarah Fu, CAIDP (United States)
  • Keith Fulford, concerned citizen (UK)
  • Nanct Gacheru, CAIDP Fall Fellow (Kenya)
  • Alexander Galanos, NYU (United States)
  • Begüm Görmez, BegoLaw (Turkiye)
  • Antonio Medina Gómez,  Asociación Colombiana de Usuarios de Internet (Colombia)
  • Soledad Guilera, Torcuato Di Tella University (Argentina)
  • kriti goyal (France)
  • Dominique Greene-Sanders, USF (United States)
  • Prof. Esra Gules-Guctas, The Ohio State University (United States)
  • Melissa Hatton, Capgemini Government Solutions (United States)
  • Merve Hickok, CAIDP (United States)
  • Belen Sanchez Hidalgo, Data Scientist - Responsible AI Advocate (United States)
  • Aaron Hyzen, University of Antwerp (United States)
  • Joseph ishie, Nina jojer (Nigeria)
  • Pankaj Kamthan, Concordia University (Canada)
  • Arik Karim, The Student Political Research Initiative for New Governance (United States)
  • Zaki Khoury, World Bank (United States)
  • Prof. Markus Krebsz, The Human-AI.Institute / University of Stirling / Woxsen University (United Kingdom & Germany)
  • Winnie Kungu, Researcher (Kenya)
  • Prof. Dr. Diego Kuonen, Statoo Consulting & University of Geneva (Switzerland)
  • Caroline Friedman Levy, Research to Policy Collaboration, Edna Bennett Pierce Prevention Research Center (United States)
  • Jinqian Li,  University of Cambridge (China)
  • Oscar Lopez, OptIA (Chile)
  • Roberto Lopez-Davila, Office of the Court Administration (Puerto Rico)
  • Lisa DuBois Low, Texas Tech University (United States)
  • Nada Ahmad Madkour, Eastern Michigan University (PhD student and lecturer) (United States)
  • Matter Mastracci, ETICAS (Spain)
  • Jubie Matlou, South African Broadcasting Corporation (South Africa)
  • Scott McCulloch, Hanover Communications (Brussels)
  • Wonki Min, SUNY Korea (Korea)
  • Abhinav Mittal, babl.ai (United Arab Emirates)
  • Dr. Julia Maria Mönig, Univ rsity of Bonn (Germany)
  • Nishita Mullamangalath, University of Groningen (Netherlands)
  • Claudio Ndeleva Mutua, Sian Mutua Advocates, Nairobi (Kenya)
  • Juliet Nanfuka, TechTapestry (Uganda)
  • Stephen Ng, AI Organization (Hong Kong)
  • Adam Nosal,  Independent Ai consultant/speaker (Scotland)
  • Amir Noy,  Reichman University (IDC) (Israel)
  • Confidence Osein, Internet Safe Kids Africa (Nigeria)
  • Linus Osuagwu, Veritas University Abuja Nigeria (Nigeria)
  • Quency Otieno, CAIDP Researcher (Kenya)
  • Adele Pace, NIL STUDENT AT MONASH DIGITAL LAW MASTERS (Australia)
  • André G D. PEREIRA, University of Coimbra (Portugal)
  • Jean Garcia Periche, GENIA Latinoamérica (Dominican Republic)
  • Heramb Podar, Policy for the People (India)
  • Dr Wellett Potter, University of New England (Australia)
  • Marcin Rabiza, Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland)
  • Nayyara Rahman, Independent consultant (Pakistan)
  • Chinmoy Rajpal (India)
  • Sneha Revanur, Encode Justice (United States)
  • M. Rex, ON, llc (United States)
  • Nelly Rousseau,  CAIDP (France)
  • Ruby, Bar Council of Delhi (India)
  • Cody Rutherford, Noblis (United States)
  • Daniele Sabato, Center for AI Digital Policy (Canada)
  • Alireza Saebi (Iran)
  • Valeria Sadovykh, Microsoft (United States)
  • Juan Pablo Salazar, Cyberlaw (Columbia)
  • Leslie Salgado, PhD Candidate, University of Calgary (Canada)
  • Fabio Seferi, Researcher (Italy)
  • Shahneela Shahbaz, CAIDP Policy Clinic Fall 2023 Fellow (Pakistan)
  • Maya Sherman, University of Oxford (Israel)
  • Sonya Sherman, ZEN Information (Australia)
  • Jayant Singh, Lawyer (India)
  • Eren Sözüer, Istanbul University (Türkiye)
  • Mythili Srinivasamurthy, Advocate (India)
  • Marisa Stones, Government of Bermuda (Bermuda)
  • Svetluša Surova, Minority Issues Research Institute (Slovakia)
  • Dr. Eric Sydell, Vero AI (United States)
  • Remy Taking Arrey,  LexRatio (Belgium)
  • Brian Tshuma, Southern Data Clinic (United Kingdom)
  • Gabriel Udoh, Robotics and Law Society (RAILS) (Germany)
  • Luis Ernesto Vasquez Leal, Law Professor. Rafael Belloso Chacín University (URBE) (Venezuela)
  • Jaya Vijayen, CAIDP (United States)
  • Stefanos Vitoratos, Homo Digitalis (Greece)
  • Anne Vogdt,  Anne Vogdt Integrity Consulting (Germany)
  • Lindsey Washburn, Pinion (United States)
  • Paul Gabriele Weston, Vatican School of Librarianship (Vatican City State)
  • Harri Williams, CAIDP (United Kingdom)
  • Sabire Sanem Yilmaz, researcher (Turkey)
  • April Yoder, University of New Haven (United States)
  • Brian Zhou, Encode Justice / Fidutam (United States)
  • Limor Ziv, CEO, Humane AI (Israel)

Countries represented - 41 (as of Nov 17, 2023)


UGAI Endorsements - Individuals (2018)

  • Prof. Harold Abelson, MIT (United States)
  • Doaa Abu Elyounes, Harvard Law School, Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society (United States)
  • Rachael Acker (United States)
  • Prof. Alessandro Acquisti, Carnegie Mellon University (United States)
  • Dr. Carolina Aguerre, CETyS, Universidad de San Andrés (Argentina)
  • Kazi Reaz Ahammad (Bangladesh)
  • Tauheedul Ali, Realize-IT (United Kingdom)
  • Dr. Arlenis Ali, Cnrs (France)
  • Prof. Anita L. Allen, University of Pennsylvania Law School (United States)
  • Agustín Pedro Allende Larreta, Lawyer (Argentina)
  • Ahmed Almalki (Saudi Arabia)
  • Nikolaos Anastasopoulos, iapp (Greece)
  • Prof. Leighton Andrews, Cardiff University (United Kingdom)
  • Prof. Luis Arroyo Jiménez, University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)
  • Dr. Sidney Bailin (United States)
  • Dr. Suso Baleato, Harvard University (Spain)
  • Sébastien Barbieri (Belgium)
  • Prof. Solon Barocas, Cornell University (United States)
  • Aurelie BARRET, Ministery of Justice (Belgium)
  • Prof. Marco Bassini, Bocconi University (Italy)
  • Dr. Christine Bauer, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)
  • Prof. Jonathan Beever, University of Central Florida (United States)
  • Prof. Miguel Beltrán de Felipe, professor of Law, University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)
  • Enrique Javier Benítez Palma, Economist (Spain)
  • Prof. Colin Bennett, University of Victoria (Canada)
  • Joe Blankenship, University of Kentucky (United States)
  • crystal blasky, associating (United States)
  • Prof. Franziska Boehm, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology/Leibniz Institute for Information Infrastructure (Germany)
  • Dr. Luca Bolognini, ISTITUTO ITALIANO PER LA PRIVACY E LA VALORIZZAZIONE DEI DATI (Italy)
  • Dr. Rodolfo Boraso (Italy)
  • Prof. Christine Borgman, UCLA (United States)
  • Dr. Stefania Bove (Italy)
  • Dr. Elcio Brito da Silva, Usp (Brazil)
  • Dr. Maja Brkan, Maastricht University (Netherlands)
  • Dr. Joanna Bryson, University of Bath (United Kingdom)
  • Joy Buolamwini, Algorithmic Justice League (United States)
  • Giovanni Buttarelli, European Data Protection Supervisor (Italy)
  • Prof. Federico Cabitza, University of Milano - Bicocca (Italy)
  • Prof. Paul Callister, University of Missouri - Kansas City School of Law (United States)
  • Dr. Norman Dale Carrico, San Francisco Art Institute/UC Berkeley (United States)
  • David Chandler (United States)
  • Prof. Raja Chatila, Sorbonne Universite, Paris (France)
  • Dr. Vinay Chaudhri, Vinay K. Chaudhri Research (United States)
  • Prof. Andrew Chin, University of North Carolina School of Law (United States)
  • Dr. Barbara Ciaramitaro, (United States)
  • Prof. Danielle Citron, University of Maryland School of Law (United States)
  • Debrina Clay (United States)
  • Prof. Ralph Clifford , University of Massachusetts School of Law (United States)
  • Robert Peter Coffin, Coffin's ConCepts (United States)
  • Prof. Julie Cohen, Georgetown University Law Center (United States)
  • Dr. Geoff Cohen, Aon (United States)
  • James Graham Corscadden , None (United Kingdom)
  • Prof. ulises Cortés, Uninvesitat Politècnica de Catalunya/ barcelona supercomputing center (Spain)
  • Prof. Philippe Cudre-Mauroux, University of Fribourg (Switzerland)
  • Prof. Ross Dakin, Lehman College (United States)
  • Dr. Todd Davies, Stanford University (United States)
  • Simon Davies, Privacy International (United Kingdom)
  • Prof. Michael Davis, Illinois Institute of Technology (United States)
  • Gary E. Davis, retired philosopher (United States)
  • Prof. Gustavo Díaz, DILG621222UG4 (Mexico)
  • Dr. Emilio De Capitani, FREE-Group Executive Director (Belgium)
  • Paul De Hert, Free university Brussels (Belgium)
  • Cristina De Luca, ION 89 (Brazil)
  • Prof. Abdoulaye Baniré Diallo, Professor University of Quebec at Montreal (Canada)
  • Jacob Dickinson (United States)
  • Simon Diggins (United Kingdom)
  • Dr. Alexander Dix, European Academy for Freedom of Informaton and Data Protection (Germany)
  • Prof. Gabriel Doncel, University of Delaware (United States)
  • Dr. Danilo Doneda, IDP (Brazil)
  • Veronica Donica, Consortium Legal Bucharest (Romania)
  • Hlengiwe Dube, Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria (South Africa)
  • Jaselle Edward-Gill, Fraunhofer (Germany)
  • Egal Egal, None (Canada)
  • Dr. Paul Epping, Epping Consultancy BV (Netherlands)
  • Dr. Victor Espino, friend (Afghanistan)
  • Andy Soeren Evers (Germany)
  • Dr. Nicola Fabiano, Studio Legale Fabiano (Italy)
  • Francesca Fanucci, Centre for Media, Data and Society, Central European University (Hungary)
  • Prof. David Farber, Keio University (Japan)
  • Dr. Addison Fischer, Founder, Verisign (United States)
  • Brett Forman, Journalist (United States)
  • Justin Fortner, N/A (United States)
  • Dr. Michael Friedewald, Fraunhofer Inst. Syst. & Innov. Research (Germany)
  • Prof. Michael Froomkin, U. Miami School of Law (United States)
  • Dr. Fabrizio Gagliardi, ACM Europe (Switzerland)
  • Prof. Oscar Gandy Jr., Annenberg School for Communication (United States)
  • Prof. Itzcóatl García, Sastre (Mexico)
  • Prof. Antonio Garcia-Molina, IAETA (Colombia)
  • Dr. Simson Garfinkel, George Mason University (United States)
  • Denise Garrette, NA (United States)
  • Prof. Vincent Gautrais, Université de Montréal (Canada)
  • Marie Georges, Independent DP expert (France)
  • Marie GEORGES , Retired (France)
  • Dr. Davide Giribaldi (Switzerland)
  • Prof. Miguel Gonzalez Mendoza, Tecnológico de Monterrey (Mexico)
  • Dr. Begoña Gonzalez Otero, IPResearcher at Ericsson (Germany)
  • Prof. Gloria González Fuster, Law, Science, Technology and Society (LSTS) Research Group, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) (Belgium)
  • Prof. Ellen Goodman, Rutgers Law School (United States)
  • Prof. Dimitris Gouscos, University of Athens (Greece)
  • Dil Green (United Kingdom)
  • Erma Green, Public Supporter (United States)
  • Prof. Graham Greenleaf, University of New South Wales Faculty of Law (Australia)
  • Richard Griffiths, University of Brighton (Retired) (United Kingdom)
  • Shivam Gupta, Member (India)
  • Prof. Swarnima Gupta, Education (India)
  • Dr. Swati Gupta, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)
  • Prof. Serge Gutwirth, LSTS, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)
  • Jeffrey Hall (United States)
  • Mina Hanna, Synopsys Inc. (United States)
  • Prof. Lynda Hardman, Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica and Utrecht University (Netherlands)
  • Prof. Woodrow Hartzog, Northeastern University (United States)
  • Gry Hasselbalch, www.dataethics.eu (Denmark)
  • Dr. yohko Hatada, EMLS RI (Evolution of Mind Life Society Research Institute) (United Kingdom)
  • John Havens (United States)
  • Barbara Helfer, Immersion (United States)
  • Prof. James Hendler, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (United States)
  • Dr. Ivan Herman (France)
  • Prof. Mireille Hildebrandt, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)
  • Dr. Harry Hochheiser, University of Pittsburgh (United States)
  • Dr. Rush Holt (United States)
  • Danny Hope, Danny Hope Ltd (United Kingdom)
  • Stéphanie Horth (Canada)
  • Michelle Hovington , Llc (Afghanistan)
  • Dr. Xiaomeng Hu (China)
  • Prof. Michael Huhns, University of South Carolina (United States)
  • Cindy Hwang, Yale School of Art (United States)
  • Paul Hyland, ACM USTPC (United States)
  • Abid Irfan, undergrad student (India)
  • Dr. Kristina Irion, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  • Joichi Ito, MIT Media Lab (United States)
  • Shubham Jain (India)
  • Malavika Jayaram, Digital Asia Hub (Hong Kong)
  • Prof. Jorge Jimenez (Mexico)
  • Dr. Jeff Johnson, University of San Francisco (United States)
  • Dr. Michelle Johnson, University of Pennsylvania (United States)
  • Prof. Douglas W. Jones, University of Iowa (United States)
  • Prof. Meg Leta Jones, Georgetown University (United States)
  • Prof. Wonsup Jung, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of)
  • Aaron Daniel Kaatz, Google (United States)
  • Dr. Andrzej Kaczmarek, UODO (Poland)
  • Prof. Margot Kaminski, Colorado Law (United States)
  • Omar Kaminski, Observatory of Brazilian Civil Rights Framework for the Internet (Brazil)
  • Prof. Jerry Kang, UCLA School of Law (United States)
  • Dr. Konstantinos Karachalios, IEEE Standards Association (Greece)
  • Dr. Argyro Karanasiou, Bournemouth University (United Kingdom)
  • Garry Kasparov, Human Rights Foundation (United States)
  • Prof. Ethan Katsh, University of Massachusetts Ctr. for Technology and Dispute Resolution (United States)
  • James Keebler, retired (United States)
  • Erin Kenneally , Elchemy (United States)
  • Dr. Ian Kerr, University of Ottawa (Canada)
  • Babar Khan Javed, Branding In Asia (Singapore)
  • Kevin Kim, First Nations Health Authority (Canada)
  • Dr. Kai Kimppa, University of Turku (Finland)
  • Dr. Els Kindt, KU Leuven (Belgium)
  • Dr. Lorraine Kisselburgh, Purdue University (United States)
  • Prof. Bart Piet Knijnenburg, Clemson University (United States)
  • Prof. Alfred Kobsa, University of California, Irvine (United States)
  • Dr. Ansgar Koene, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)
  • Kei Koizumi, AAAS (United States)
  • Dr. Benn Konsynski, Emory University (United States)
  • Prof. Eleni Kosta, Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT) - Tilburg University (Netherlands)
  • Eero Laaksonen, Valohai - Deep Learning Management platform (Finland)
  • Jaron Lanier (United States)
  • Prof. Francisco J. Lara, Universidad Católica de Valencia (Spain)
  • J. Carlos Lara, Derechos Digitales (Chile)
  • Chris Larsen, Ripple, Inc. (United States)
  • Paul Layton, Layton Law Firm, PLLC (United States)
  • Joseph Lazzarotti, Jackson Lewis PC (United States)
  • Dr. Victoria López, Complutense University of Madrid (Spain)
  • Prof. Iliana López Rico (Mexico)
  • Dr. Daniel Le Métayer, Inria (France)
  • Ho John Lee (United States)
  • Jeok Sin Lee, Data Architect (Malaysia)
  • Dr. "Rosa" Hyun Kyong Lee, Korean Information Society Development Institute (Korea, Republic 
  • Dr. Hoyeong Lee, Korea Information Society Development Institute (Korea, Republic of)
  • Prof. Kevin Lee, North Carolina Central University School of Law (United States)
  • Prof. Ronald Leenes, Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT) – Tilburg University (Netherlands)
  • Caroline Leesi (United States)
  • Juliette Leportois, University (Belgium)
  • Prof. David Levine , Elon University School of Law and Stanford Center for Internet and Society (United States)
  • Prof. Harry Lewis, Gordon McKay Professor of Computer Science, Harvard University (United States)
  • Dr. Helena Lindgren, Umeå University (Sweden)
  • Prof. Ramon Lopez de Mantaras, Artificial Intelligence Research Institute (Spain)
  • Emile Loza de Siles, Technology & Cybersecurity Law Group.com (United States)
  • Prof. David Lyon, Queen's University (Canada)
  • Prof. Cathryn Magno, University of Fribourg (Switzerland)
  • Mario Major (Belgium)
  • Orestes Mak (United States)
  • Dr. Alice Marwick, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States)
  • Prof. Gary T. Marx, MIT (United States)
  • Prof. Francesca Maschio (Italy)
  • Jay Mason, M&S Consulting (United States)
  • Dr. Patrice McDermott, Government Information Watch (United States)
  • Jon McFarlane (United States)
  • Said Mchangama, HaYba FM (Comoros)
  • Mark McKenna, Notre Dame Law School (United States)
  • Roger McNamee, Elevation Partners (United States)
  • Dr. Arwid Mednis, Warsaw University, Law and Administration Faculty (Poland)
  • Edmund Mierzwinski, Senior Director, Consumer Programs, U.S. PIRG (United States)
  • Mary Minow, Berkman Klein, Harvard University (United States)
  • Hiroshi Miyashita, Chuo University (Japan)
  • Dr. Pablo Molina, Georgetown University (United States)
  • Dr. Kwangjin Moon, Korea Information Society Development Institute (Korea, Republic of)
  • Dr. Jung Wook Moon, Korea Information Society Development Institute (Korea, Republic of)
  • Dr. Ahram Moon, Korea Information Society Development Institute (Korea, Republic of)
  • Filipe Mourão (Portugal)
  • Alberto Munoz, Grupo Plenum (Mexico)
  • Dr. John Murray, Calidris Partners (United States)
  • Prof. Barry Myers, Northwest Nazarene University (United States)
  • Prof. John Naughton, Cambridge University (United Kingdom)
  • Prof. Begoña Navallas , Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain)
  • Valery Roxane nee Klaw; Robinson, Moxie Industries (United States)
  • Mitchell Nemeth (United States)
  • Paul Nemitz (Belgium)
  • Dr. Peter G. Neumann, SRI International (United States)
  • Tuan Nguyen, Boston Global Forum (United States)
  • Prof. Antonio Nicolas, Profesor (Mexico)
  • Dr. Juan Carlos Nieves, Umeå University (Sweden)
  • Prof. Helen Nissenbaum, Cornell Tech (United States)
  • Dr. Safiya Noble, University of Southern California, Annenberg School of Communication (United States)
  • Dr. Ali Nouri , Federation of American Scientists (United States)
  • Stanley NWALA , NSE (Nigeria)
  • Cathy O'Neil, Author, Founder, ORCAA (United States)
  • Prof. José Alfredo Oliver Sánchez, Oliver Sánchez (Mexico)
  • Prof. James Ong, Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD) (Singapore)
  • Severo Ornstein, Founder, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (United States)
  • Raymond Ozzie (United States)
  • Maria J Pariente Fragoso, Ms. (Spain)
  • Sarah Parker, Harvard Law School (student) (United States)
  • Prof. JUAN LEONARDO PARRA-MENDEZ, PAMJ640419470 (Mexico)
  • Prof. Frank Pasquale, University of Maryland (United States)
  • Prof. Norberto Patrignani, Computer Ethics, Politecnico of Torino (Italy)
  • Prof. Mark Patterson, Fordham University School of Law (United States)
  • Candace Paul (United States)
  • Dr. Adam Pease (United States)
  • Deborah C. Peel, MD, Founder and President of Patient Privacy Rights (United States)
  • Dr. Chanu Peiris, Chatham House (United Kingdom)
  • Andrea Pellegrini (Italy)
  • Dr. David Pelta, Universidad de Granada (Spain)
  • Dr. Stephanie Perrin, Digital Discretion Inc. (Canada)
  • Prof. Bilyana Petkova, Maastricht University School of Law (Netherlands)
  • Jonathan Pincus, A Change Is Coming (United States)
  • Kent Pitman (United States)
  • John Podesta, Founder, Center for American Progress (United States)
  • Prof. John Podesta, Center for American Progress (United States)
  • Aurélie Pols, None (Spain)
  • Prof. Alexander Quinn, Purdue University (United States)
  • Dr. Kester Quist-Aphetsi, CRITAC| Ghana technology University College (Ghana)
  • Prof. Charles Raab, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
  • Prof. Artemi Rallo Lombarte, Constitutional Law Professor (Spain)
  • Prof. Anita Ramasastry, University of Washington School of Law (United States)
  • Kimberly Ransom, National Association of Counties (United States)
  • Fredrik Rönnlund, Deep Learning Platform Chief Growth Officer (Finland)
  • Prof. Joel Reidenberg, Fordham University & Princeton University (United States)
  • Dr. Mirela Riveni, TU Wien (Austria)
  • Evan Roberts , Supporter (United States)
  • George Roberts, Atlantic Hall School Epe Lagos (Nigeria)
  • Prof. Antoinette Rouvroy, FNRS / CRIDS, University of Namur (Belgium)
  • Prof. Sarterus Rowe, Seattle University Law (United States)
  • Dan Rubins, Legal Robot, Inc. (United States)
  • Dr. Pati Ruiz (United States)
  • Ryan Runkewich (United States)
  • Catarina Sarmento e Castro, Law Faculty, University of Coimbra (Portugal)
  • David Schmudde, Beyond the Frame (United States)
  • Prof. Ingrid Schneider, Universität Hamburg (Germany)
  • Bruce Schneier (United States)
  • Prof. Dr. phil. Wolfgang M. Schröder, Faculty of Catholic Theology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)
  • Prof. Douglas Schuler, The Evergreen State College (United States)
  • Evan Selinger , Rochester Institute of Technology (United States)
  • Prof. Giovanni Semeraro , University of Bari ALDO MORO (Italy)
  • ANIRBAN SEN, Independent Attorney (India)
  • Prof. Noel Sharkey, Foundation for Responsible Robotics (United Kingdom)
  • Prof. John Shattuck, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University (United States)
  • Oleg Shchedrov, Concordia (United States)
  • Prof. Ben Shneiderman, University of Maryland (United States)
  • Prof. Vijay Shekhar Shukla, QBI Institute (India)
  • Prof. HUGO SILVA (Mexico)
  • John M. Simpson, Consumer Watchdog (United States)
  • Prof. Haley Slaughter, PETA (United States)
  • Prof. Eugene Spafford, Purdue University (United States)
  • Christopher Spottiswoode (South Africa)
  • Prof. Nadine Strossen (United States)
  • Dr. anna su, University of Toronto Faculty of Law (Canada)
  • Prof. Lucy Suchman, l.suchman@lancaster.ac.uk (United Kingdom)
  • Fredrik Svärd, The Swedish Data Protection Forum (Sweden)
  • Donovan Synmoie (United Kingdom)
  • Dr. Ivan Szekely, Central European University (Hungary)
  • Dr. Damian Tambini, LSE (United Kingdom)
  • Dr. Garry Taylor, Ethical AI Australia (Australia)
  • Giacomo Tesio (Italy)
  • THAMPAN THOMAS, HMS (India)
  • Dr. Grace Thomson (Ecuador)
  • Elena Thomson (United States)
  • Jose Guadalupe Torres Morales, SNTE (Mexico)
  • Prof. Jose Guadalupe Torres Morales, SNTE (Mexico)
  • Dr. Martin Tröschel, OFFIS - Institute for Information Technology (Germany)
  • Svetlana Trendova (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)
  • Prof. Sherry Turkle (United States)
  • Prof. Jose Luis Ucieda, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)
  • SAMUEL UZOIGWE, Nigerian Bar Association (Nigeria)
  • Prof. Siva Vaidhyanathan, The University of Virginia (United States)
  • Prof. Peggy Valcke, KU Leuven - Centre for IT & IP Law (CiTiP) (Belgium)
  • Dr. Rosamunde van Brakel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)
  • Prof. Joris van Hoboken, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) & University of Amsterdam (UvA) (Belgium)
  • Aimee van Wynsberghe, Delft University (Netherlands)
  • Prof. Natalia Vega Varela, The New School (United States)
  • Prof. José Luis Verdegay, Universidad de Granada (Spain)
  • Prof. Francisco Vico, University of Malaga (Spain)
  • Edward Vlitz (United States)
  • Prof. Jim Waldo, Harvard University (United States)
  • Dr. Steve Walker, The Open University (United Kingdom)
  • Wendell Wallach, The Hastings Center, Yale Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics (United States)
  • Daniel J. Weitzner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)
  • Joseph Wilson, Central City Hospitality House (United States)
  • Prof. Donald Winiecki, Boise State University (United States)
  • Prof. Terry Winograd, Stanford University (United States)
  • Ben Winters, Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law (United States)
  • Christopher Wolf , Future of Privacy Forun (United States)
  • Karl Wollaeger (United States)
  • Prof. Timothy Wu, Columbia University (United States)
  • Dr. Gabriela Zanfir-Fortuna, pdpecho (Romania)
  • Prof. Ales Zavrsnik, Institute of Criminology at the Faculty of Law Ljubljana (Slovenia)
  • Prof. Howard Zelaznik, Purdue University (United States)
  • Dr. Hongyu Zhu, zhy_smart@hotmail.com (China)
  • Chris Zielinski, University of Winchester (United Kingdom)
  • Dr. Michael Zimmer, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (United States)
  • Prof. Jonathan Zittrain, Harvard University (United States)
  • Prof. Shoshana Zuboff, Harvard University (United States)
  • Dr. Frederik Zuiderveen Borgesius, Vrije Universiteit Brussels & University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  • Prof. Максим Коршеков (Bangladesh)